History and current state
The Land Titles Office (LTO) of the Department of Justice maintains public documents that are accessible to stakeholders (e.g., lawyers, land surveyors) and the public to conduct land titles-related transactions and searches under Yukon’s Torrens system1 of land registration.
The increase in number and complexity of real estate transactions over the past 20+ years has resulted in strains on the processes and systems, including longer turnaround times for registrations, requests, and queries. These longer turnaround times have a direct and negative economic impact on professional stakeholders, developers, and members of the public. The LTO committed to modernizing and streamlining all aspects of its operations to allow staff to work to their full capacity and to meet the needs of stakeholders and the public more effectively.
The LTO has conducted business using only manual, paper-based processes for over 100 years. The introduction of a database (Land Interest Management System, LIMS) about 20 years ago to record many government land interests across departments resulted in land titles information being entered into the database. LIMS is a centralized land information repository but is not a land-titles-specific system. LIMS did not eliminate manual examination or handling of submitted paper documents. Instead, it created additional work to transfer information from paper into the system. LIMS can compile certificates of title for land titles that are in its database. However, LIMS does not contain many cancelled titles or some active titles. Since the implementation in December 2019 of the Yukon Land Titles Registry (YLTR), ownership of LIMS has transferred to Energy, Mines and Resources, Lands Branch.
In 2012, the Government of Yukon (YG) reviewed and analyzed the present state of the land titles systems in the Yukon and other Canadian jurisdictions: legislation, business processes, supporting computer platform, governance model, and financial/fee structure. This initiative included a full review of existing Yukon legislation, engagement with stakeholders, and business requirements gathering and analysis.
In 2015, legislation review and stakeholder engagement resulted in a new Condominium Act, 2015 and Land Titles Act, 2015, which were passed by the Legislative Assembly. The Land Titles Act, 2015 has been proclaimed but the Condominium Act, 2015 has since been amended and awaits proclamation on October 1, 2022.
Among other things, The Land Titles Act, 2015 enables business process changes that contribute to the LTO modernization. These changes include support for the move from the current paper-based system to an electronic system that can support the growth in complexity and volume of transactions as well as improvements to LTO business processes.
The LTO currently consists of 11 employees including the Registrar, processes approximately 9000-10000 documents per year, and manages approximately 19,000 certificates of title.
The LTO holds records dating from 1897 to present. These include original hand-written and word-processed records for all titles as well as a combination of microfilm, microfiche, and digital (LIMS) formats.
The paper filing system for all original paper records consists of over 240,000 documents, which are filed numerically and stored in a physical vault. This system includes all documentation related to land titles. Document formats vary in size and include paper, survey plans, bound books, cross-reference and index books, and patents.
The LTO has maintained a daybook since 1897 which records every instrument and caveat submitted for registration. From 1997 to 2019, the LTO has registered instruments and caveats manually in both the daybook and LIMS although only the entry in the daybook has legal effect. LTO staff entered a brief description of each instrument or caveat into LIMS and assigned the next sequential number to the instrument.
Since the implementation of the electronic registry on December 2, 2019, the Daybook is maintained by retaining a paper copy of every Document Registration Form and electronic reports that can be run detailing all registrations.
YG started a microfilm program in 1985 to microfilm original certificates of title, instruments, and daybooks. The YG Records Centre, which is in a different location than LTO, holds the master microfilm and master microfiche of land titles records while the LTO holds a microfilm/microfiche copy of the records. Certificates of title are microfiched (jacket system) and instruments are microfilmed (roll).
LTO registration fees are estimated by the system at the time of submission. Clients must provide payment either before services are provided or by way of maintaining a prepaid account with LTO. Fees and account balances are calculated, charged, and maintained electronically in the registry system. The system automatically creates and sends a monthly account balance statement for every account holder if there has been activity during that month or if the account holds a positive balance.
Anyone can request land titles information. Lawyers or surveyors are generally the ones who submit instruments or caveats for registration but members of the public may also do so. Requests for registration currently arrive in person at the LTO, and by mail; LTO also accepts requests for information (but not requests for registration) in person, by phone, and by email. LTO staff members process the paper documents, enter information into the registry system, and then file the registered instruments or caveats in the vault as required by legislation.
Most interactions require a secure, online solution. LTO staff have eliminated many administrative tasks such as paper handling, filing, and billing, and therefore have time to provide improved customer service to clients who require additional service or have complex questions that are not supported by the online tools. LTO staff have well-defined roles and expectations of service delivery.
The public and customers can access information via secure, online, self-serve tools to complete most tasks. Basic administrative tasks such as status inquiries and document submissions are automated. The LTO communicates changes to procedures broadly and consistently. Customers receive rapid responses to queries from trained staff.
The ongoing Land Titles Modernization project contains plans to formalize the return of paper documents to submitters and recognize the scanned electronic version as the authoritative record.
All LTO registry information is available online and via data interfaces for use by other YG departments.
Yukon Land Titles Registry
History and current state
Yukon's Department of Highways and Public Works, Transportation and Engineering Branch (TEB) is responsible for a variety of activities, including transportation planning, monitoring the condition of transportation infrastructure for planning and management purposes and road infrastructure safety analysis. As a part of carrying out these responsibilities, TEB leads and supports the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) within the Yukon Government (YG).
ITS is implementing a Traffic Classifier system (the" System") for the purpose of traffic safety analysis and improvement. The system consists of a camera ("Camera") that captures live stream video, which is connected to the traffic classifier, the TrafficEmbedded unit. ("Unit"). The Unit contains an Al engine (FLOW) which analyzes the video stream and extracts data. These non-image traffic insights are then sent to a FLOW Insights dashboard for use within TEB. As soon as the image is processed, there is no longer any personal information included in the system, it is only analytics. A System visualization is attached in Appendix E.
The non-image traffic insights, containing no personal information, can also be sent on further and used for smart city platforms, LED signs and as a basis for signal/traffic lights control.
The purpose of the System is to capture how roads, sidewalks, airports, and multiuse trails are used and at what volume allow YG to make informed decisions regarding speeds, safety information and future planning. The System works by classifying the images from the Camera according to specific parameters. The classifications include large mammal, vehicle, plane, bike, person, and others. The System can count the number of each class, track trajectories, near misses and collisions between and among classes, speed, traffic violations, and more. The information can be used by TEB to make changes to traffic lights, automatically activate roadside signs or pedestrian signals and other safety related information. TEB can also use the information to understand the frequency of use of various roads and pathways.
The only personal information collected by the System is the live-stream video captured by the camera and fed into the Unit. This could be video of a person or of their vehicle. There is no storage of the image within the Camera or Unit. Once the video stream reaches the Unit there is no further transmission of the images. There is no ability to go into the System and pull historical video feeds. All analysis occurs in real-time, in milliseconds, within the Unit.
This is not a surveillance system, rather a classification and counting system.
During system set up and maintenance, access can be granted to the live video stream in order to configure conditions for analysis and to train the artificial intelligence in classifying images. There are two options for HPW-TEB staff to access the live feed, either they will need to take a computer to the traffic classifier location, or they can connect the traffic classifier to the internet and can then access the video feed via VPN. Data From Sky, the Unit creator, can also access the live video stream, only when their specific VPN is enabled by TEB staff, and assist in system configuration and troubleshooting. The video feed is not accessed on any sort of regular basis or used for other purposes.
To manage the user authentication and log on to the Yukon Government ("YG") online systems and services, YG has decided to use the Auth0 Authenticator to facilitate a Single Sign on (“SSO”). SSO occurs when a user logs in to one application and is then signed into other applications automatically, regardless of the platform, technology, or domain the user is using. Citizens or other users sign in in a single time and are then logged on to any of the affiliated systems/services they are authorized to utilize.
Auth0 will be used by YG staff (“Staff Users”) to manage the log-on process to multiple government systems, as well as by members of the public (“Public Users”) who require access to various YG government online services. Though the Staff and Public Users will follow largely the same process, they are discussed separately in the Privacy Impact Assessment to ensure that the differences are documented.
The Department of Highways and Public Works (“HPW”) is the department responsible for the management of Auth0 and the collection of the information, however, Auth0 may be used by any YG Department of program area for their systems. As such, this PIA will focus on the broad use of Auth0 throughout YG.
Canto Cumulus System
The Tourism and Culture Department -Visitor Services, Photography Unit (Photo Unit) of the Yukon Government (YG) manages the database for Government of Yukon photography. It supports the Tourism and Culture purpose of supporting, protecting, promoting and enhancing Yukon’s tourism, culture, heritage and arts sectors for the benefit of Yukoners and visitors.
The Photo Unit maintains a significant catalogue of digital media, including photos and videos, for promotional and marketing materials at YG. It has been using an on-premises solution for over 20 years, provided by Cumulus software. Since Cumulus will no longer be supporting this software, the Photo Unit is required to find an alternative software solution for their Digital Asset Management (DAM) needs.
To replace the legacy system, Cumulus is shifting to a cloud-based solution. Canto Cumulus (“Canto”, https://www.canto.com) is a DAM software service that will allow for the collection, storage, organization, filtering, and searching of digital images, videos, and other media. The Photo Unit wishes to use this system to manage their inventory of digital media. Canto is seen as software for the 21st century and will allow for migration of the current digital assets from the on-premises software.
A PIA for this software system has been deemed necessary because it will manage digital media which may display identifiable people. Names and other details of the individual are not included in the photos, or their meta data, unless the image is of an individual in their work capacity, such as a member of the YG cabinet or the name of a business owner whose photo is taken for promotion of that business.
Note: Canto also offers a search feature based on recognizable faces, and thus employs a form of biometric identification. This feature has been disabled within the system at the Administrative user level. Should consideration be given to enabling this ability, this PIA will be amended accordingly.